Ecole St. Denis students take part in National Aboriginal Day pow wow.
The First Nations population living in Sudbury is younger than the general population. In 2006, the median age of the First Nations population was 31.2 years, compared to 41.3 years for the general population.
Statistics Canada Report
This report examines the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the Aboriginal population living in the census metropolitan area of Sudbury1. The 2006 Census and 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS), which provide an extensive set of data about Aboriginal people, are the data sources.
The report focuses on the Aboriginal identity population, which refers to those people who reported identifying with at least one Aboriginal group, that is, North American Indian, Métis or Inuit, and/or those who reported being a Treaty Indian or a registered Indian as defined by the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported they were members of an Indian band or First Nation.
The term “First Nations” is used throughout the report to refer to people who identified as North American Indian. The term “Aboriginal population” is used to refer to the Aboriginal identity population. The preferred name now is Ingenious.
Setting the context
There were 1,172,790 Ingenious. people in Canada in 2006, accounting for 3.8% of Canada’s total population.
In 2006, a total of 242,500 Ingenious. people lived in Ontario, representing 2.0% of the provincial population.
There were 9,970 Ingenious. people living in Sudbury in 2006 making up 6.4% of the city’s total population. By way of comparison, Toronto had the largest Aboriginal population (26,575) of any city in Ontario, and Kenora had the largest concentration of Aboriginal people of any city in Ontario (16%).
Between 2001 and 2006, the Aboriginal population in Sudbury grew by 35%, from 7,385 to 9,970 people. The Métis grew by 64% while the First Nations population grew by 10%.
Métis – largest Ingenious group in Sudbury
In 2006, 5,430 persons identified as Métis accounting for just over half (54%) of the city’s Aboriginal population. Another 4,260 identified as First Nations people and 35 as Inuit1. First Nations people accounted for 43% of the Aboriginal population while Inuit accounted for less than 1%. Another 2% reported multiple or other Aboriginal responses2.
Of those who identified as First Nations people in 2006, almost three in four (73%) reported being a Treaty Indian or a registered Indian as defined by the Indian Act of Canada.
About the data sources
The census provides a statistical portrait of Canada and its people. The most recent census was on May 16, 2006.
The 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) was conducted between October 2006 and March 2007. The survey provides extensive data on Inuit, Métis and off-reserve First Nations children aged 6 to 14 and those aged 15 and over living in urban, rural and northern locations across Canada. The Aboriginal Peoples Survey was designed to provide data on the social and economic conditions of Aboriginal people in Canada (excluding reserves).
It was possible to report both single and multiple responses to the Aboriginal identity questions on the census and the Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Census data used in this article for First Nations people, Métis and Inuit are based on the single responses only. Total Aboriginal identity population counts include people who reported identifying with at least one Aboriginal group and/or those who reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian and/or those who reported they were members of an Indian band or First Nation. The Aboriginal Peoples Survey data represent a combination of both the single and multiple Aboriginal identity populations.
Data have been provided for the total Aboriginal identity population and in some cases they have been broken down by Aboriginal group, sex and age group. For Aboriginal groups where the census count of the population aged 15 years and over is 200 or less, only the census count has been provided. No further data are shown due to potential data quality issues that can result from small counts that arise when several variables are cross-tabulated.
A young population
The Aboriginal population living in Sudbury is younger than the non-Aboriginal population. In 2006, the median age of the Aboriginal population in Sudbury was 31.2 years, compared to 41.3 years for the non-Aboriginal population.
In 2006, four in ten (41%) Aboriginal people were under the age of 25, compared to three in ten (30%) non-Aboriginal people. Further, only 5% of Aboriginal people were 65 years and over, compared to 15% in the non-Aboriginal population. One-quarter (25%) of Aboriginal people in Sudbury were under the age of 15, compared to 17% of their non-Aboriginal counterparts (chart 1). For more details, see table 1 in the appendix.
Aboriginal children aged 14 years and under represented 9.3% of the city’s children. Over one-quarter (27%) of the First Nations population was 14 years of age and under, compared to 23% of Métis.
Aboriginal children more likely than non-Aboriginal children to live with a lone parent
In 2006, 55% of Aboriginal children aged 14 and under lived with both parents. Compared with their non-Aboriginal peers, Aboriginal children were more likely to live with a lone mother (38% versus 18%), a lone father (4% versus 3%), a grandparent (with no parent present) (1.4% versus 0.6%) or with another relative (2.2% versus 1.0%) (see table 2 in the appendix).
Young Aboriginal women as likely to be attending school as their non-Aboriginal counterparts
Seven in ten (72%) Aboriginal women aged 15 to 24 living in Sudbury in 2006 were attending school. This rate almost mirrors that of non-Aboriginal women in the same age group (73%). Young Aboriginal men were, however, less likely than their non-Aboriginal counterparts to be in school (62% versus 67%).
Older Aboriginal women (35 years of age and older) in Sudbury have a greater tendency to return to school later in life than do Aboriginal men and non-Aboriginal men and women in the same age group. About one in ten (11%) Aboriginal women 35 years of age or older were attending school in 2006, compared to 5% of Aboriginal men, 4% of non-Aboriginal men and 6% of non-Aboriginal women (see table 3 in the appendix).
The 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey found that among the off-reserve Aboriginal population in Ontario, men and women had different reasons for not completing high school. For young Aboriginal men aged 15 to 34, the most commonly reported reason was ‘wanted to work’, ‘pregnancy/taking care of children’ topped the reasons provided by Aboriginal women in the same age group.
Majority have completed post-secondary education
Over half of Aboriginal men (55%) and women (53%) aged 25 to 64 living in Sudbury in 2006 had completed postsecondary education compared to six in ten of their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Postsecondary education includes a trades certificate, a college diploma or a university certificate, diploma or degree. Aboriginal men and women were almost as likely as their non-Aboriginal counterparts to a have college diploma. However, Aboriginal men were more likely than non-Aboriginal men to have trades school credentials. Non-Aboriginal people of both sexes were more likely than Aboriginal people to have a university degree (see text table 1).
In 2006, 23% of Aboriginal men and 21% of Aboriginal women 25 to 64 years of age had less than a high school education, compared to 16% and 14%, respectively of their non-Aboriginal male and female counterparts.
Young Aboriginal women in Sudbury more likely to obtain a university degree than their male counterparts
In Sudbury, one in six (16%) Aboriginal women aged 25 to 34 reported having a university degree, in the 2006 Census, compared to 6% of their male counterparts. (This includes all certificates, diplomas or degrees at the bachelor’s level or above). Furthermore, young Aboriginal women (25 to 34 years of age) were also twice as likely to have a university degree as older Aboriginal women 35 to 64 years of age (16% versus 8%) (see chart 2).
Regardless of their age group or sex, Aboriginal people living in Sudbury in 2006, were less likely than their non-Aboriginal counterparts to have a university degree.
Higher unemployment rates
In 2006, the unemployment rate4 for the Aboriginal core working age population (aged 25 to 54) in Sudbury was higher than that of the non-Aboriginal population (7.8% compared to 5.6%). First Nations and Métis women had the same rates of unemployment (7.9%). The unemployment rate for First Nations men (10.0%) was, however, three percentage points higher than that of Métismen (6.9%).
Unemployment rates were much higher for Sudbury’s young people. In 2006, 31.9% of First Nations youth aged 15 to 24 years were unemployed, as were 23.5% of Métis youth, and 17.0% of non-Aboriginal youth (see table 4 in the appendix).
Métis more likely to be employed than First Nations
Another measure of labour market performance is the employment rate5. In 2006, Métis men (79.6%) and Métis women (66.9%) aged 25 to 54 living in Sudbury were less likely to be employed than their non-Aboriginal counterparts (84.1% and 76.2%). Their employment rates were, however, higher than those for First Nations men (69.2%) and First Nations women (58.6%) (see table 5 in the appendix).
Aboriginal people less likely to be working full-time full-year
Three in ten (29%) Aboriginal people living in Sudbury were working full-time full-year6 in 2005, compared to 35% of the non-Aboriginal population. Men were more likely than women to be full-time full-year workers in 2005, regardless of the population group. Over one-third (36%) of Aboriginal men and over four in ten (42%) non-Aboriginal men worked full-time full-year compared to 23% of Aboriginal women and 28% of non-Aboriginal women.
Métis men and women in the Sudbury labour force were more likely than their First Nations counterparts to be working full-time full-year in 2005. Four in ten (39%) Métis men and one in four (26%) Métis women were working full-year full-time compared to 31% of First Nations men and 18% of First Nations women (see text table 2).
Occupations in ‘sales and services’ most prevalent
In studying the labour market of a given area, it is helpful to examine its occupational7 make-up. In 2006, the most common occupational categories8 for both the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experienced labour forces in Sudbury were ‘sales and service’ and ‘trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations’. However, the kinds of jobs people hold differ for men and women. For example, men were much more likely than women to work in ‘trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations’. Women were more likely than men to work in ‘sales and service’. This holds true for both the Aboriginal and the non-Aboriginal populations in Sudbury.
In 2006, Aboriginal men were more likely than their non-Aboriginal counterparts to work in ‘trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations’ (36% versus 30%). Among women, Aboriginal women were more likely than non-Aboriginal women to have ‘sales and service’ jobs (38% versus 32%) (see table 6 in the appendix).
Earnings gap closing
In 2000, the median earnings9 of full-time full-year Aboriginal earners in Sudbury (measured in 2005 dollars) were $38,099. By 2005, this had increased to $40,364. Even though Aboriginal people who worked full-time full-year in 2005 continued to earn less than their non-Aboriginal counterparts, the gap is closing. In 2000, Aboriginal people in Sudbury working full-time full-year earned 86% of what their non-Aboriginal counterparts were earning. By 2005, this percentage had increased to 89% (see table 7 in the appendix).
Total income lower for Aboriginal people
The census collects a number of measures of income that help in understanding the economic situation of a population. Earnings data have been provided above for the population working full-time full-year in 2005. It is also useful to look at total income10 as sources of income go beyond that of employment. In 2005, one in four (25%) Aboriginal people with income in Sudbury had a totalincome of $40,000 or over compared to about one-third (34%) of their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In 2005, Aboriginal women had the lowest median income ($15,891), whether compared to Aboriginal men ($29,377) or to non-Aboriginal men ($37,368) or to non-Aboriginal women ($20,176) (see table 8 in the appendix).
In understanding these data, it is important to note that, in Sudbury, 7% of the Aboriginal population 15 and over and 5% of the their non-Aboriginal counterparts reported having no income in 2005 (data not shown).
Over one in four Aboriginal people in Sudbury living below the low-income cut-off
Statistics Canada uses the concept of low-income cut-off (LICO)11 to indicate an income threshold below which a family will likely devote a larger share of its income on the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family. In 2005, in Sudbury over one in four (27%) Aboriginal people were living under the LICO, compared to 12% of non-Aboriginal people. In addition, 34% of Aboriginal children (aged 14 years and under) in Sudbury were living under the LICO, compared to 15% of non-Aboriginal children (data not shown). These data are based on the before taxLICO.
Half of Sudbury’s Aboriginal population moved at least once between 2001 and 2006
The Census counts people where they are living on one particular day. On May 16, 2006 (the date of the 2006 Census) there were 9,970 Aboriginal people living in the census metropolitan area of Sudbury. This count does not include all of the Aboriginal people who may have lived in Sudbury at some point during the year, but only those who were living in Sudbury on that particular day12.
When looking at the Census population counts, it is important to remember that many people move between communities – for example, someone might move from a reserve community to a large city and back again within the same year. In Sudbury, in 2006, 50% of the Aboriginal population had lived at the same address five years ago, compared to 65% of the non-Aboriginal population. From 2001 to 2006, just over one-third (35%) of Aboriginal people had moved at least once within Sudbury, and the rest (15%) had moved to Sudbury from another community. A community may refer to another municipality, or a reserve, or a rural area (see table 9 in the appendix).
When asked on the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey why they moved to their current city, town or community, most off-reserve Aboriginal people in Ontario reported family-related reasons, followed by work-related reasons.
One in nine live in homes needing major repairs – down from 2001
In Sudbury, one in nine (11.4%) Aboriginal people lived in homes requiring major repairs13 in 2006, compared to 17.8% in 2001. In comparison, the share of Sudbury’s non-Aboriginal population living in dwellings in need of major repairs was 7.4% in 2006 and 8.3% in 2001.
The share of Aboriginal people living in crowded14 homes was 1.9% in 2006 up from 1.4% in 2001. The comparable rates for the non-Aboriginal population were 0.6% in 2006 and 0.8% in 2001 (see table 10 in the appendix).
Majority report being healthy
The majority of off-reserve First Nations and Métis adults (the population aged 15 and over) living in Ontario15 rated their health as excellent or very good in 2006. When asked as part of the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey whether their health was excellent, very good, good, fair or poor, 52% of the off–reserve adult First Nations population and 58% of Métis adults gave themselves a rating of excellent or very good. A further 26% of First Nations adults and 25% of the Métis adult population reported that their health was good.
Six in ten adults live with one or more chronic conditions
The 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey also inquired about chronic conditions16 that had been diagnosed by a health professional. Six in ten off-reserve First Nations (60%) and Métis (59%) adults living in Ontario reported that they had been diagnosed with at least one chronic condition17 Among the First Nations adult population, the most frequently reported conditions were: arthritis or rheumatism (25%), respiratory problems18 (22%) and high blood pressure, heart problems or effects of a stroke (22%). Among theMétis, arthritis or rheumatism was the most commonly reported condition affecting 24% of adults followed by high blood pressure, heart problems or effects of a stroke (23%) and respiratory problems (22%).